Should politicians bring more pollution to our country? What would happen if finite resources were not used wisely?
Teaching Writing as Process Process vs. While these distinctions may not hold up under deep scrutiny, they were useful in the early years of Composition Studies as a way of talking not only about what students write, but also about how they write.
James McCrimmon, for instance, understood this distinction as the difference between writing as a way of knowing process and writing as a way of telling product. Donald Murray defined it as the difference between internal and external revision revising in order to clarify meaning for oneself vs.
Linda Flower framed it as the difference between writer-based and reader-based prose. Though these theorists differ in their definitions of the distinction between process- and product-oriented writing, they do agree on one point: Some students arrive in college with strategies for managing all these steps of the writing process; others have habits that have served them in high school but that limit them in college; still others have no strategy for writing at all.
They will also benefit from having an array of methods to help their students move successfully through the writing process. Invention Invention includes everything that a student does before beginning to compose a paper. And they are composing even as they invent.
You may want to add to this list with activities of your own.
In any case, we encourage you to design your course so that the various methods of invention are taught, discussed, and reflected on.
Reading as a writer. With many academic papers, invention begins with reading a text here we use "text" broadly to include everything from books, to works of art, to results of scientific experiments, to cultural, social, and economic systems.
Students sometimes read these texts passively, satisfying themselves with absorbing the information in front of them. Instead they need to read actively, raising questions or challenging the writer as they read.
Instructors can help their students to read like writers by encouraging them to scribble up the margins of their books with questions and quibbles. Students should be encouraged to look for patterns.
Seasoned writing instructors offer students several strategies for generating ideas. Others—like asking students to freewrite, or brainstorm, or write a discovery draft a bit like freewriting, but with more focus —are more informal and can be used not only to come up with a topic but also to nudge a student out of a writing funk.
Perhaps the best way of helping students to generate ideas is through good old-fashioned dialogue. Asking questions—both in conference and in writing workshops—models for students a way of interrogating their ideas that will yield better papers.
With practice, students will internalize these methods of inquiry and will apply them to all of their academic tasks. Students have several strategies to choose from when organizing their ideas.
Some students draft formal outlines and follow them faithfully as they write. Others make informal outlines that they revise as they draft. Some students find that sketching a paper works best for them: Some students look for umbrella ideas and try to cluster related ideas beneath them.
Still others write short paragraphs to try to summarize their thinking.
While students should be permitted to use the organizing strategies that work for them, sometimes young writers rely overmuch on one organizational strategy. Doing some research can help. Show your students how to contextualize their ideas. In a writing workshop or in a conference, select one of their ideas, and then ask: What is the history of this idea?
What else has been said on this topic that is relevant to our discussion? What do the dissenting voices have to say? How might we answer them? Asking these kinds of questions not only moves students into the ongoing academic conversation, it also gives them a sense of how to craft an introduction, when it comes time to write one.
The last step in the invention process and the first formal step of the composing process is coming up with a working thesis or thesis question. Advise students to post the thesis where they can see it as they write:“You can only write regularly if you’re willing to write badly Accept bad writing as a way of priming the pump, a warm-up exercise that allows you to write well.” The Effortless Effort of Creativity: Jane Hirshfield on Storytelling, the Art of Concentration, and Difficulty as a Consecrating.
Jul 19, · / 50 Best Persuasive Speech & Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips. Blog. 50 Best Persuasive Speech & Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips. December 18, | GradeMiners A persuasive essay is aimed at convincing the reader to agree with a chosen idea and to motivate them to adopt your point of view.
In fact, working .
The writing process is complicated, and often seems loosely defined. According to Webster’s, writing is “ the way you use written words to express your ideas or opinions." Although we may think of it as little more than arranging letters and words on a page, a few moments' reflection reveals.
Mark, that is indeed the danger with writing the way you talk which is why you need to be ruthless in your editing to catch those mistakes. But if you let yourself relax and just write the way you would talk about your topic for your first draft, it will help you get past the writer’s block so you can get your ideas down – and then edit from there.
noun. the act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated. the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. Contact Us () Contact & Department Info. it's perhaps useful to make a distinction between writing-as-process and writing-as-product.
Show your students how to contextualize their ideas. In a writing workshop or in a conference, select one of their ideas, and then ask: What is the history.