Penrose's response to criticisms of Shadows of the Mind. Nowadays the thesis that no physical process can go beyond the bounds of computability, is known as the Physical Church-Turing thesis. In discussing the 'Argument from Continuity of the Nervous System', Turing's paper comes very close to asserting this thesis. But this is one area where Turing's post texts are well worth studying, because in the radio talkTuring briefly gave a different discussion, this time bringing in the difficulty posed by quantum mechanics.
Philosophical background[ Simple intelligence test ] The question of whether it is possible for machines to think has a long history, which is firmly entrenched in the distinction between dualist and materialist views of the mind.
But it never happens that it arranges its speech in various ways, in order to reply appropriately to everything that may be said in its presence, as even the lowest type Simple intelligence test man can do.
Descartes therefore prefigures the Turing test by defining the insufficiency of appropriate linguistic response as that which separates the human from the automaton. Descartes fails to consider the possibility that future automata might be able to overcome such insufficiency, and so does not propose the Turing test as such, even if he prefigures its conceptual framework and criterion.
According to dualism, the mind is non-physical or, at the very least, has non-physical properties  and, therefore, cannot be explained in purely physical terms. According to materialism, the mind can be explained physically, which leaves open the possibility of minds that are produced artificially.
In his book, Language, Truth and LogicAyer suggested a protocol to distinguish between a conscious man and an unconscious machine: Moreover, it is not certain that Ayer's popular philosophical classic was familiar to Turing. In other words, a thing is not conscious if it fails the consciousness test.
Alan Turing[ edit ] Researchers in the United Kingdom had been exploring "machine intelligence" for up to ten years prior to the founding of the field of artificial intelligence AI research in It is not difficult to devise a paper machine which will play a not very bad game of chess. A, B and C.
A and C are to be rather poor chess players, B is the operator who works the paper machine. Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves, and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine.
C may find it quite difficult to tell which he is playing. Turing begins the paper with the claim, "I propose to consider the question 'Can machines think? Turing chooses not to do so; instead he replaces the question with a new one, "which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words.
In this game both the man and the woman aim to convince the guests that they are the other. Huma Shah argues that this two-human version of the game was presented by Turing only to introduce the reader to the machine-human question-answer test. We now ask the question, "What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?
These questions replace our original, "Can machines think? In this version, which Turing discussed in a BBC radio broadcast, a jury asks questions of a computer and the role of the computer is to make a significant proportion of the jury believe that it is really a man. If a keyword is found, a rule that transforms the user's comments is applied, and the resulting sentence is returned.
If a keyword is not found, ELIZA responds either with a generic riposte or by repeating one of the earlier comments. A group of experienced psychiatrists analysed a combination of real patients and computers running PARRY through teleprinters.
Another group of 33 psychiatrists were shown transcripts of the conversations. The two groups were then asked to identify which of the "patients" were human and which were computer programs. Chinese room John Searle 's paper Minds, Brains, and Programs proposed the " Chinese room " thought experiment and argued that the Turing test could not be used to determine if a machine can think.
Searle noted that software such as ELIZA could pass the Turing test simply by manipulating symbols of which they had no understanding.
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Without understanding, they could not be described as "thinking" in the same sense people do. Therefore, Searle concludes, the Turing test cannot prove that a machine can think.
Loebner Prize The Loebner Prize provides an annual platform for practical Turing tests with the first competition held in November The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies in MassachusettsUnited States, organised the prizes up to and including the contest.
As Loebner described it, one reason the competition was created is to advance the state of AI research, at least in part, because no one had taken steps to implement the Turing test despite 40 years of discussing it.
This highlighted several of the shortcomings of the Turing test discussed below: The winner won, at least in part, because it was able to "imitate human typing errors";  the unsophisticated interrogators were easily fooled;  and some researchers in AI have been led to feel that the test is merely a distraction from more fruitful research.
However, the competition has awarded the bronze medal every year for the computer system that, in the judges' opinions, demonstrates the "most human" conversational behaviour among that year's entries. Learning AI Jabberwacky won in and Early Loebner Prize rules restricted conversations: Each entry and hidden-human conversed on a single topic,  thus the interrogators were restricted to one line of questioning per entity interaction.
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