Charcot, Janet, and Freud all noted that fragmented memories of traumatic events dominated the mental life of many of their patient and built their theories about the nature and treatment of psychopathology on this recognition. Janet 75 thought that traumatic memories of traumatic events persist as unassimilated fixed ideas that act as foci for the development of alternate states of consciousness, including dissociative phenomena, such as fugue states, amnesias, and chronic states of helplessness and depression. Unbidden memories of the trauma may return as physical sensations, horrific images or nightmares, behavioral reenactments, or a combination of these. Janet showed how traumatized individuals become fixated on the trauma:
Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with Intimate partner violence essay penis, other body part or object. If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking,  drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life.
It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence. Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence.
Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence. Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.
To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence.
Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physicalsexualpsychologicalemotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect. Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce.
Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abuserscaregiver support interventions e.
Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators.
A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used.
The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship.
In elder abuseimportant factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver. The third level explores the community context—i.
Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty. All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence.
Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: Child-rearing[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies.
For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.
Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics.
For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently. Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence" write that violence is inherent in humans, though not inevitable.
Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight? The conclusion is that "we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict. These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies.
They suggest that research typically focuses on lethal violence, often looks at homicide rates of death due to warfarebut ignore the less obvious forms of violence. Kaplan introduces the notion of liberating violence. According to Kaplan, we will observe more violent civil wars in the future, which will be fought due to economic inequalities around the world.Project Background.
This is a 3-year project, funded by Status of Women Canada, with the goal to engage men and boys from Muslim communities to end violence in the family.. The objectives of this project are to: Develop and strengthen the skills of men and boys, working in partnership with women and girls, to identify and respond to issues and gender-based violence .
Intimate Partner Violence Research Essay. Introduction. Intimate partner violence (IPV) which may also be known as domestic violence.
It entails psychological, physical or sexual harm by an intimate partner. An examination of the possibilities for libertarian feminism, taking the feminist thought of the 19th century radical individualists as an example and a guide.
We find that the radical libertarian critique of statism and the radical feminist critique of patriarchy are complementary, not contradictory, and we discuss some of the confusions that lead many libertarians--including many libertarian. Essay on Intimate Partner Violence - Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a type of abuse that occurs between people who are involved in a close relationship.
“Intimate partner” is a term that is used to include both current and former spouses as well as dating partners. When I first read the tagline for this book "Confronting Intimate Violence Within Activist Communities" I wasn't entirely sure how helpful it would be for understanding and thinking through intimate violence -in general- but as I love INCITE's perspective and work I decided to give it a go anyway; and I am so glad I did.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group .