Tight, hoarse throat; trouble swallowing Swelling of the tongue, affecting the ability to talk or breathe Weak pulse Pale or blue coloring of skin Dizziness or feeling faint Anaphylaxisa potentially life-threatening reaction that can impair breathing and send the body into shock; reactions may simultaneously affect different parts of the body for example, a stomachache accompanied by a rash Most food-related symptoms occur within two hours of ingestion; often they start within minutes. In some very rare cases, the reaction may be delayed by four to six hours or even longer. Delayed reactions are most typically seen in children who develop eczema as a symptom of food allergy and in people with a rare allergy to red meat caused by the bite of a lone star tick. Another type of delayed food allergy reaction stems from food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome FPIESa severe gastrointestinal reaction that generally occurs two to six hours after consuming milk, soy, certain grains and some other solid foods.
The global food supply exemplifies cost containment, with the result that food in the United States and throughout much of the world has become increasingly cheaper.
Figure shows that while the United States spent an increasing amount of money on food over the past two decades, the percentage of disposable income represented by food expenditures has fallen dramatically over the same period. The expectation of inexpensive food as part of the global just-in-time economy means that there is little resiliency in our food supply, however.
Adapted from USDA In many instances, an adulterated food could be guaranteed overnight delivery to thousands, if not millions, of Americans. Previous Outbreaks and Attacks The single largest outbreak of salmonellosis documented in the United States to date stands as an example of the potential of a foodborne illness to occur among many thousands of consumers before it is detected.
Inice cream mix produced in a Minnesota plant was shipped before final freezing and packaging as a pasteurized product in trucks that had previously carried raw egg mix without being adequately cleaned. There were more thancases of illness among those who ate the ice cream Hennessy et al. As is typical in foodborne outbreaks, humans serve as the bioassay for contamination.
Routine enteric disease surveillance conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health identified an increased occurrence of cases of Salmonella serotype enteritidis infection. An epidemiologic investigation led to the identification of Salmonella serotype enteritidis contamination in selected lots of ice cream.
Epidemiologic data provided the only indication that ice cream was the vehicle, as the bacterium was found in less than two percent of samples tested. Nevertheless, despite the low attack rate, a large number of people were sickened because of the large volume of contaminated ice cream.
An intentional attack would probably feature higher concentrations of such an agent, with predictably devastating consequences.
To date intentional foodborne attacks have not produced a major catastrophe. Instead, they have been largely localized events, staged by individuals. Although Ascaris is not an agent of particular concern, this example reminds us that many individuals have access to infectious and noninfectious adulterants that could easily be added to many foods.
A well-known incident occurred in Oregon, inwhen members of the Rajneesh religious cult contaminated a salad bar with Salmonella, causing illnesses Torok et al.
Ina disgruntled Texas lab worker intentionally contaminated pastries with Shigella dysenteriae and left them for her coworkers to eat. Twelve people became infected Kolavic et al.
As the following examples illustrate, chemical contamination of the food supply may pose an even much greater risk than many biologic agents: In Holland and Germany, ina dozen children were hospitalized after citrus fruit from Israel was intentionally contaminated with mercury Khan et al.
In China, inpeople became ill after specific food products were laced with rat poison by makers of competing products Death sentence, a.
Ina similar rat poisoning incident killed at least 38 people and made more than seriously ill Death sentence, ab. In Michigan, the contamination of pounds of ground beef with insecticide containing nicotine by a disgruntled employee in a supermarket sickened people, including 40 children CDC, Foodborne Attack Scenarios Terrorists could achieve mass human casualties by adding a class A bio-terrorism agent such as botulinum toxin during the processing or transportation of a variety of vulnerable foods.
This is not an artificial scenario, given the previously described account of milk adulteration. It is of grave concern to analysts who have researched its possibility and projected consequences, some of whom feel that such attack scenarios should not be publicly discussed.
Economic disruption is a likely outcome of any foodborne attack, and it could be achieved without directly harming humans by spreading pathogens specific to livestock e. Such diseases could have critical implications for the food supply system. Economic consequences would also likely result from mass anxiety, which could be generated with a credible hoax that targeted popular food products or a popular restaurant.Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Hog Cholera, Velogenic Newcastle Disease, African Swine Fever, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, and Rinderpest.
It is estimated that if FMD became established within the U.S. that it would cost our nation over $27 billion in trade losses alone each year.
The team extends its thanks to the many public officials, private companies, and association representatives, farmers, and other stakeholders who were interviewed as part of this work, and who shared data and insight on .
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The mechanics of dealing with an attack — especially the potential need for mass animal slaughter to contain a major disease outbreak — could certainly generate public criticism (as it did during the foot and mouth epidemic in the United Kingdom).
OVERVIEW OF SOUTH KOREA’S ECONOMY Consumers are looking for multifunctional effects from health Milk Products Foot-and-mouth disease scare negatively impacts consumption of local products, leading to greater imports of powdered milk and non-dairy products like.
The recent introduction of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain serves as an example of the severe effects upon the food supply that can result from a disease that is limited to livestock.
Transportation is critical to maintaining the U.S. food supply.