Different Approaches to Negotiation written by:
Nierenberg, American author and lawyer, recognized the role of negotiation in resolving disputes in personal, business and international relations. In the s he had published The Art of Negotiating, a primer on the different approaches a negotiation can take.
Positional Bargaining As a negotiation strategy, positional bargaining can be considered a type of haggling. Each party holds a position that in the beginning represents a fixed idea.
It is the dramatization of a back-and-forth price wrangling where they each start at their own extreme position, until they meet somewhere in the middle. Positional bargaining is an instinctual strategy and effective for defending a position—in fact, children often do it in games.
The downside to this type of bargaining is the intractability of the situation as the negotiators continue to restate their positions and leave little time for underlying interests like a need-based premise or other legitimate factor.
To highlight what may be wrong with this type of negotiation Spangler says that when two nations dispute over water rights, for example, the fact that they have other issues about religion or immigration tends to polarize the sides further and nothing is achieved.
In other words, the issues are broader than positional bargaining can handle. Interest-Based Bargaining The opposite of position bargaining, integrative or interest-based negotiation, sometimes called mutual gains bargaining, fosters a collaboration of sorts for developing a mutually beneficial agreement.
Obviously the parties hold desires and needs when they come to the table so the potential for trade-offs across other issues can make for a satisfactory outcome.
The key is identifying the interests of both parties. An example of this could be two hunters each wanting a freshly killed deer. They of course can cut the creature in half, an ungainly proposition. However, if they discuss their needs, they may find that the hunter in the orange cap wants the deer hide, while the other hunter in the camo-hat is in it for the meat; you have a win-win negotiation based on needs and interests.
They get exactly what they want instead of half of what was proposed with positional bargaining. If you can take care of the basic needs of both sides, then agreement will be easier—a list of each side's interests as they become apparent, will help. Feelings, Oh-oh-oh Feelings For a Resolution of Conflict there are two different approaches to negotiation: A competitive approach to conflict tends to increase animosity and distrust between parties and is generally considered destructive.
The best way to deal is to incorporate both cooperation and competition. Know what is possible, but still seek to advance individual interests. There is a competing style, an accommodating style, an avoidance style, a collaborating style and a compromising style. Anticipate the objections of the other party in preparation for addressing them.
Be assertive in terms of stating what it is you want honestly. Role play your end; use storytelling to present your case. Negotiate for a perk or lesser benefit. Leave room for silence—do not try to fill in the pregnant pause. Consider relationships and cultural differences.Broadly, there are four distinct approaches to leadership, viz.
Traits theory, Behaviouristic theory, Contingency theory and Charismatic theories of leadership. Traits Theory Ask people what good leadership is, and it's quite likely you will get a response that suggests good leadership can somehow be defined in terms of traits or characteristics.
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As a negotiation strategy, positional bargaining can be considered a type of haggling. Each party holds a position that in the beginning represents a fixed idea.
Each party holds a position that in the beginning represents a fixed idea. (1).What are the two different approaches to hypothesis testing.
Compare these two approaches. (4 points) (2).Explain how the P-value is obtained for a one-mean z-test in case the hypothesis test is (a).left tailed (2 points) (b).right tailed (2 points) (c). two tailed (2 points) (A).
explain the importance of a holistic approach to managing pain and discomfort There is more to taking care of an individual than just the physical needs which have caused them to need your care. A holistic approach is about taking care of their mental, emotional, social and even spiritual needs as well to ease their mind and alleviate any .
Promote person centered approaches in health and social care Explain how and why person centered values must influence all aspects of health and social care work: Because everybody has different belief systems, .